I am very sorry, but you are mixing terms a bit in this message: while quoting the article about the inline SEO catalog, you are talking about your mobile catalog then. These things are both indexable by Google and the mobile store was first proposed as a way to get your Ecwid store indexed, before we created the inline SEO catalog. They serve different purposes and hence they have some different functionality - the thing you quoted about the inline SEO is not a part of what mobile catalog does.
In fact, both the mobile store and the inline SEO catalog can be active for an Ecwid store and can be indexed by Google both at the same time. However, you would probably most want to have only your inline SEO catalog indexed - because of the behavior you quoted in your opening message.
The inline SEO catalog is what its name implies - it is located right at the same place where your Ecwid store is (on the store page in your site - i.e. it is "inline") and it is available for indexing by the search bots (i.e. it is for SEO). This allows the behavior in question - when a search engine returns a link to your store among the search results, the link will point exactly to the product or category being searched for. The link will open it right in the fullt-featured Ecwid widget, without redirects of any kind.
So, back to your question #1, Google has indexed your mobile catalog, because it was able to do so - Google takes a lot of efforts to index pretty much anyhting on the web, and the mobile catalog in Ecwid was easily indexable from the beginning. But Google has also indexed quite a number of products on the main site as well, you can see them here: http://www.google.com/search?q=site:...
- this happened because you have the inline SEO catalog enabled on your website.
As for the question #2, the mobile catalog show the link to your store URL for those visitors that are surely detected as the users of a desktop browser, so they can visit the full store if they click that link (this decision fully remains up to them). It does not , however, automatically redirect users to the desktop version of the store for a numerous reasons.
I think what you would really look for is to have your inline SEO pages delivered in the search results sooner than those of your mobile catalog. For this you need to apply typical SEO techiques of promoting a webpage to the links to your inline SEO catalog pages. Primarily you need to make some links to the inner pages of catalog on the relevant pages of your website, like it is done on http://naturalbodyinc.com
- there are all sorts of additional product listings, like Featureds, Bestsellers, by brand listings and so on. The product links in each listing do really point to the pages in the inline SEO catalog. The more links each of your product pages gets, the higher it goes in the the search engine results. This way you can make sure your clients on the desktop browsers do actually see the full version of your store.